1Timothy Chapter 4-6
October 26, 2008
1 Tim 4:1-16
4:1 BUT THE [Holy] Spirit distinctly and expressly declares that in latter times some will turn away from the faith, giving attention to deluding and seducing spirits and doctrines
that demons teach,
1. latter times: not necessarily the last ages of the world, but any time consequent to those in which the church then lived.
2. A man may hold all the truths of Christianity, and yet render them of none effect by holding other doctrines which counteract their influence.
3. He may apostatize by denying essential doctrine.
2 Through the hypocrisy and pretensions of liars whose consciences are seared (cauterized),
1. Persons pretending, not only to divine inspiration, but also a degree of holiness, etc.
2. It was customary in ancient times to mark those with a hot iron who had been guilty of great crimes.
a. The pagans supposed that even in the other world, they bear such marks.
3 Who forbid people to marry and [teach them] to abstain from [certain kinds of] foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and have [an increasingly clear] knowledge of the truth.
1 Abstain from meat: both among the pagans, Jews, and Romanists, certain meats were prohibited.
4 For everything God has created is good, and nothing is to be thrown away or refused if it is received with thanksgiving.
1. Every creature which God has made for manís nourishment is good for that purpose, and is to be received thankfully when necessary for the support of human life.
5 For it is hallowed and consecrated by the Word of God and by prayer.
1. Gen 1:29 and 9:3
6 If you lay all these instructions before the brethren, you will be a worthy steward and a good minister of Christ Jesus, ever nourishing your own self on the truths of the faith and of the good [Christian] instruction which you have closely followed.
1. Show the church that, even now, there is danger of this apostasy, put them on their guard against it.
7 But refuse and avoid irreverent legends (profane and impure and godless fictions, mere grandmothers' tales) and silly myths, and express your disapproval of them. Train yourself toward godliness (piety), [keeping yourself spiritually fit].
1. refuse profane and old wivesífables; this seems to refer particularly to the Jews, whose Talmudical writings are stuffed with the most ridiculous and profane fables that ever disgraced the human intellect.
2. Also the legends of the Romish church
3. Joselineís life of Patrich has miracles, without rhyme or reason, abundantly more numerous and more stupendous than all the necessary ones performed by Jesus and his apostles.
4. [Exercise thyself rather unto godliness.] To understand this expression it is necessary to know that the apostle alludes here to the gymnastic exercises among the Greeks, which were intended as a preparation for their contests at the public games.
a. They did this in order to obtain a corruptible or fading crown, i.e. a chaplet of leaves, which was the reward of those who conquered in those games;
b. Timothy was to exercise himself unto godliness, that he might be prepared for the kingdom of heaven, and there receive a crown that fadeth not away. See the notes at 1 Cor 9:24
8 For physical training is of some value (useful for a little), but godliness (spiritual training) is useful and of value in everything and in every way, for it holds promise for the present life and also for the life which is to come.
1. Those gymnastic exercises, so highly esteemed among the Greeks, are but little worth; they are but of short duration; they refer only to this life, and to the applause of men:
2. But godliness has the promise of this life, and the life to come; it is profitable for all things; and for both time and eternity.
3. The peace and love of God in the heart produce a serenity and calm which cause the lamp of life to burn clear, strong, and permanent.
a. Evil and disorderly passions obscure and stifle the vital spark.
b. Every truly religious man extracts the uttermost good out of life itself, and through the divine blessing gets the uttermost good that is in life; and, what is better than all, acquires a full preparation here below for an eternal life of glory above.
c. Thus godliness has the promise of, and secures the blessings
9 This saying is reliable and worthy of complete acceptance by everybody.
10 With a view to this we toil and strive, [yes and] suffer reproach, because we have [fixed our] hope on the living God, Who is the Savior (Preserver, Maintainer, Deliverer) of all men, especially of those who believe (trust in, rely on, and adhere to Him).
1. It is because we exercise ourselves to godliness that we have both labour and reproach, and we have these because we trust in the living God: but still we have mental happiness, and all that is necessary for our passage through life;
2. for in the midst of persecutions and afflictions we have the peace of God that passeth knowledge, and have all our crosses and sufferings so sanctified to us that we consider them in the number of our blessings.
3. it is because we exercise ourselves to godliness that we have both labour and reproach, and we have these because we trust in the living God: but still we have mental happiness, and all that is necessary for our passage through life;
a. for in the midst of persecutions and afflictions we have the peace of God that passeth knowledge, and have all our crosses and sufferings so sanctified to us that we consider them in the number of our blessings.
11 Continue to command these things and to teach them.
12 Let no one despise or think less of you because of your youth, but be an example (pattern) for the believers in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith, and in purity.
1. It is natural for the flock to follow the shepherd; if he goes wrong, they will also go wrong.
2. In faith: Pistis, be faithful to your trust, to your flock and to God.
a. Fidelity is honestly keeping, preservind, and delivering up when required whatever is intrusted to your care.
b. Lose nothing that God gives, and improve every gift that He gives.
3. In Purity: chastity of body and mind: a direction necessary for a young minister, who has more temptation to break itís rules than others.
13 Till I come, devote yourself to [public and private] reading, to exhortation (preaching and personal appeals), and to teaching and instilling doctrine.
1. Reading of what? Old testament?
2. Encouraged to study in private, at home, that he might be better qualified to read in assembly.
3. As to other books, there were not many at that time that could be of much use to a Christian minister.
a. In those days the great business of the preacher was to bring forward the grand facts of Christianity, to prove these, and to show that all had happened according to the prediction of the prophets; and from these to show the work of God in the heart, and the evidence of that work in a holy life.
14 Do not neglect the gift which is in you, [that special inward endowment] which was directly imparted to you [by the Holy Spirit] by prophetic utterance when the elders laid their hands upon you [at your ordination].
15 Practice and cultivate and meditate upon these duties; throw yourself wholly into them [as your ministry], so that your progress may be evident to everybody.
16 Look well to yourself [to your own personality] and to [your] teaching; persevere in these things [hold to them], for by so doing you will save both yourself and those who hear you.
1. Save is used in the sense of ďwork out your own salvation (Phil 2;12)
1 Tim 5:1-15
5:1 DO NOT sharply censure or rebuke an older man, but entreat and plead with him as [you would with] a father. Treat younger men like brothers;
1. Elder: presbuteros: A SENIOR, or Christian presbyter.
2[Treat] older women like mothers [and] younger women like sisters, in all purity.
3[Always] treat with great consideration and give aid to those who are truly widowed (solitary and without support).
1. Those that are destitute, aged & helpless, having neither children or friends to take care of them.
4 But if a widow has children or grandchildren, see to it that these are first made to understand that it is their religious duty [to defray their natural obligation to those] at home, and make return to their parents or grandparents [for all their care by contributing to their maintenance], for this is acceptable in the sight of God.
5 Now [a woman] who is a real widow and is left entirely alone and desolate has fixed her hope on God and perseveres in supplications and prayers night and day,
1. One who has neither children or relatives to take care of her.
6 Whereas she who lives in pleasure and self-gratification [giving herself up to luxury and self-indulgence] is dead even while she [still] lives.
1. One who indulges herself in good eating and drinking, pampering her body at the expense of her mind; The word is used in reference to what we term petted and spoiled children.
2. Pleasure mentioned does not mean prostitution or uncleanness of any kind.
3. Dead: No purpose of life is answered by the existence of such a person.
7 Charge [the people] thus, so that they may be without reproach and blameless.
1. Charge the whole church to attend to these things; the words are not for widows only, but of the church or its officers, both men & women.
8 If anyone fails to provide for his relatives, and especially for those of his own family, he has disowned the faith [by failing to accompany it with fruits] and is worse than an unbeliever [who performs his obligation in these matters].
9 Let no one be put on the roll of widows [who are to receive church support] who is under sixty years of age or who has been the wife of more than one man;
1. Under sixty might be able to do something toward their own support.
2. Having lived in conjugal fidelity with her husband, or having had but one husband at a time.
10 And she must have a reputation for good deeds, as one who has brought up children, who has practiced hospitality to strangers [of the brotherhood], washed the feet of the saints, helped to relieve the distressed, [and] devoted herself diligently to doing good in every way.
1. Washed the feet: This was an office of humanity shown to all strangers and travelers in the eastern countries, who, either walked barefoot, or having only a sort of sole to protect the foot, needed washing when they came to their journeyís end.
a. Pious women generally did this ct of kindness.
2. Visited and ministered to the sick.
3. Doing good: living according to the precepts of the Gospel (a Christian), and doing the Lordís work.
11 But refuse [to enroll on this list the] younger widows, for when they become restive and their natural desires grow strong, they withdraw themselves against Christ [and] wish to marry [again].
1. Do not admit those into this office who are under sixty fears of age. Probably those who were received into such a list promised to abide in their widowhood.
2. But as young or comparatively young women might have both occasion and temptations to remarry, and so break their engagement to Christ, they should not be admitted.
3. Not that the apostle condemns their remarrying as a crime in itself, but because it was contrary to their engagement. See the note at 1 Tim 5:14.
12 And so they incur condemnation for having set aside and slighted their previous pledge.
1. Itís likely that Paul refers here to some promise or engagement which they made when taken on the list already mentioned, and now they have guilt of having violated that promise.
13 Moreover, as they go about from house to house, they learn to be idlers, and not only idlers, but gossips and busybodies, saying what they should not say and talking of things they should not mention.
1. Idlers: they do not love work, and they will not work.
2. busybodies: persons who meddle with the concerns of others; who mind everyoneís business but their own.
3. Things they should not mention: Lies, slanders, backbiting their neighbors, and everywhere sowing the seed of dissension.
14 So I would have younger [widows] marry, bear children, guide the household, [and] not give opponents of the faith occasion for slander or reproach.
1. It is not sin to marry again, bear children, and take care of a family, but it is a sin to be idle, gadabouts, tattlers, busybodies, sifting out and detailing family secrets.
15 For already some [widows] have turned aside after Satan.
1. Some of these young widows, for he appears to be still speaking of them, are turned aside to idolatry, to follow Satan instead of Christ.
2. Slight deviations, in the first instance, from a right line, may lead at last to an infinite distance from Christ.
16 If any believing woman or believing man has [relatives or persons in the household who are] widows, let him relieve them; let the church not be burdened [with them], so that it may [be free to] assist those who are truly widows (those who are all alone and are dependent).
1. If any Christian man or woman have poor widows, which are their relatives, let them relieve them-provide them with the necessaries of life, and not burden the church with their maintenance, that the funds may be spared for the support of those widows who were employed in its service, teaching children, visiting the sick, etc., etc.
2. For the performing of such offices it is very likely that none but widows were employed
17 Let the elders who perform the duties of their office well be considered doubly worthy of honor [and of adequate financial support], especially those who labor faithfully in preaching and teaching.
1. Double honor: Let him have a double or a larger salary who rules well.
2. Honor: Greek; timees: a value, money paid
3. preaching & teaching: logos & didaskalia: word & instruction.
18 For the Scripture says, You shall not muzzle an ox when it is treading out the grain, and again, The laborer is worthy of his hire. [Deut 25:4; Luke 10:7.]
1. This is a proof that by (timee, or honor, in the preceding verse, the apostle means salary or wages.
2. when the ox is treading grain, heís entitled to sustenance by that grain.
3. The laborer is worthy of his hire, but the church should not support him who does not minister at it.
a. If the ox wonít tread out the corn, let him be muzzled, or? If a man will not labor, let him have no pay.
19 Listen to no accusation [presented before a judge] against an elder unless it is confirmed by the testimony of two or three witnesses. [Deut 19:15.]
1. Be cautious of receiving evil reports against those whose business it is to teach others.
2. The law of Moses requires 2 Ė 3 witnesses.
3. In Roman law, an plebeian, lowest class citizen, might be condemned by one credible witness, but it required two to convict a senator.
4. The reason of this difference is evident that those whose business it is to correct others will usually have many enemies; great caution, therefore, should be used in admitting accusations against such persons.
a. Donít receive these accusations: to accept, or admit.
20 As for those who are guilty and persist in sin, rebuke and admonish them in the presence of all, so that the rest may be warned and stand in wholesome awe and fear.
1. This was the custom of the Jews in their synagogues.
2. This is the grand object of church censures, to rebuke the transgressors and to give warning to others.
21 I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of the chosen angels that you guard and keep [these rules] without personal prejudice or favor, doing nothing from partiality.
1. The chosen angels: whose office it was to minister to the heirs of salvation.
2. Some would give special attention to the rich.
22 Do not be in a hurry in the laying on of hands [giving the sanction of the church too hastily in reinstating expelled offenders or in ordination in questionable cases], nor share or participate in another man's sins; keep yourself pure.
1. Donít hastily appoint any person to the sacred ministry.
2. It is a sin for any improper person to thrust himself into the sacred office and also those who saction it.
3. Elders, bishops, or presbyters, and others that are rash and undiscerning canít teach, or learn and make a mess.
4. keep yourself pure from this and every kind of other evil.
23 Drink water no longer exclusively, but use a little wine for the sake of your stomach and your frequent illnesses.
1. The priests under the Mosaic law, while performing sacred rites, were forbidden to drink wine.
2. It was the same with the Egyption priests, and was forbidden also among the Romans; even those under 18 were forbidden to drink wine (according to the writings of Plato)
3. From 1 Tim 4:12, we learn that Timothy was a young man; but as among the Greeks and Romans the state of youth or adolescence was extended to thirty years, and no respectable young men were permitted to drink wine before that time;
a. allowing that Timothy was about twenty when Paul had him circumcised, which was, according to Calmet, in 51 AD, and that this letter was written about 64 or 65 AD, then Timothy must have been about thirty-five when he received this letter;
b. and as that was on the borders of adolescence, and as the Scripture generally calls that youth that is not old age, Timothy might be treated as a young man by Paul, as in the above text, and might still feel himself under the custom of his country relative to drinking wine (for his father was a Greek, Acts 16:1),
c. and, through the influence of his Christian profession, still continue to abstain from wine, drinking water only; which must have been very prejudicial to him, his feeble state considered, the delicacy of his stomach, and the excess of his ecclesiastical labours.
24 The sins of some men are conspicuous (openly evident to all eyes), going before them to the judgment [seat] and proclaiming their sentence in advance; but the sins of others appear later [following the offender to the bar of judgment and coming into view there].
1. In appointing men to sacred offices in the church, among the candidates Timothy would find,
a. Some of whom he knew nothing, but only that they professed Christianity; let such be tried before they are appointed.
b. Some of whose faith and piety he had the fullest knowledge, and whose usefulness in the church was well known.
c. Some whose lives were not at all or but partially reformed, who were still unchanged in their hearts, and unholy in their lives.
2. The sins of these latter were known to all; they go before to judgment, with them he could have no difficulty, but with the first class he would have difficulty.
a. Their might be hypocrites among them.
b. Their sins might be found out after you lay hands on them, therefore lay hands suddenly on no man.
25 So also, good deeds are evident and conspicuous, and even when they are not, they cannot remain hidden [indefinitely].
1. Though those who are very holy and very useful in the church cannot be unknown, yet there are others not less holy who need to be brought forward; who do much good in private; and their character and good works are not fully known until after diligent inquiry.
2. These are they who do not let their left hand know what their right does.
1 Tim 6:1-21
6:1 LET ALL who are under the yoke as bond servants esteem their own [personal] masters worthy of honor and fullest respect, so that the name of God and the teaching [about Him] may not be brought into disrepute and blasphemed.
1. bond servants: these are slaves converted to Christianity.
2. These masters are pagan masters.
3. The civil state in which a man was before his conversion is not changed by that conversion, nor does the grace of God absolve him from any claims the state or his neighbor may have on him.
a. If you have obligations or debts before conversion, you have them after also.
2 Let those who have believing masters not be disrespectful or scornful [to them] on the grounds that they are brothers [in Christ]; rather, they should serve [them all the better] because those who benefit by their kindly service are believers and beloved. Teach and urge these duties.
1. These believing masters have also been recently converted.
3 But if anyone teaches otherwise and does not assent to the sound and wholesome messages of our Lord Jesus Christ (the Messiah) and the teaching which is in agreement with godliness (piety toward God),
1. There were different teachers in the church who preached that a converted servant had as much right to the masterís service as the master had to his.
2. We have had teachers of this kind from the days of Paul & Timothy until now.
3. Sound and wholesome messages: healing doctrines; messages which give nourishment and health to the soul & body.
a. This is the true character of all the doctrines taught by our Lord Jesus.
b. Jesus didnít talk about slaves or political questions or about questions relative to private rights.
c. He taught all men to love, respect, submit to one another.
4 He is puffed up with pride and stupefied with conceit, [although he is] woefully ignorant. He has a morbid fondness for controversy and disputes and strife about words, which result in (produce) envy and jealousy, quarrels and dissension, abuse and insults and slander, and base suspicions,
1. His knowledge is foolishness, for he knows nothing.
2. It is probable that Paul is talking about Judaizing teachers, who were, in questions of theology, straining out a gnat, and swallowing a camel.
3. How little good religious disputes ever done to mankind or to the cause of truth.
4. Canít men support their own opinions, and give his own views of the religion of Christ without abusing or insulting his neighbor?
5 And protracted wrangling and wearing discussion and perpetual friction among men who are corrupted in mind and bereft of the truth, who imagine that godliness or righteousness is a source of profit [a moneymaking business, a means of livelihood]. From such withdraw.
6[And it is, indeed, a source of immense profit, for] godliness accompanied with contentment (that contentment which is a sense of inward sufficiency) is great and abundant gain.
7 For we brought nothing into the world, and obviously we cannot take anything out of the world;
1. Itís interesting to note here that the Roman philosopher, Seneca, a contemporary of Paul and all the Greek and Latin poets had this same sentiment.
8 But if we have food and clothing, with these we shall be content (satisfied).
1. clothing: raiment: SKEPASMATA: covering in general; and here means house or lodging, as well as clothes.
9 But those who crave to be rich fall into temptation and a snare and into many foolish (useless, godless) and hurtful desires that plunge men into ruin and destruction and miserable perishing.
1. Crave to be rich: their object and aim in life is to get all the money they can get, and keep all the can, & see no danger because they seek to get rich by honest means.
a. Paul likely is not referring to those who wish to get riches by robbery, plunder, extortion, etc.
10 For the love of money is a root of all evils; it is through this craving that some have been led astray and have wandered from the faith and pierced themselves through with many acute [mental] pangs.
1. A hole is dug in the earth, filled with sharp stakes, and being slightly covered over with turf, and whatever steps on it falls in, and is pierced through and through with these sharp stakes.
11 But as for you, O man of God, flee from all these things; aim at and pursue righteousness (right standing with God and true goodness), godliness (which is the loving fear of God and being Christlike), faith, love, steadfastness (patience), and gentleness of heart.
1. O man of God: Tim had taken God for his portion, many ministers have been ruined by this. (love of money) and how has Christianity suffered because of these.
2. Patience in all trials & persecutions
12 Fight the good fight of the faith; lay hold of the eternal life to which you were summoned and [for which] you confessed the good confession [of faith] before many witnesses.
1. Fight the good fight: (to struggle, as to contend with an adversary)
2. Lay hold of eternal life which starts now.
a. Timothy received eternal life when he confessed Christ in front of many.
b. We do this when we are baptized in water.
3. Paul is saying that was when you could have taken hold of eternal life; (at salvation: the born again experience; so take it now and all that it entails.
13 In the presence of God, Who preserves alive all living things, and of Christ Jesus, Who in His testimony before Pontius Pilate made the good confession, I [solemnly] charge you
1. God is the giver & sustainer of life, who is the resurrection and will raise us up at the last day.
2. The confession made by Jesus before Pilate was; that he was Messiah the King.
14 To keep all His precepts unsullied and flawless, irreproachable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ (the Anointed One),
1. His precepts: the entire Word of Christ should be kept entire.
2. Keep the truth, and the truth will keep you.
15 Which [appearing] will be shown forth in His own proper time by the blessed, only Sovereign (Ruler), the King of kings and the Lord of lords,
1. The word Sovereign is Ruler: from the Greek Dunastees: Potentate: applied to secular governers.
2. These are titles not given to men as made more specific in the next verse.
16 Who alone has immortality [in the sense of exemption from every kind of death] and lives in unapproachable light, Whom no man has ever seen or can see. Unto Him be honor and everlasting power and dominion. Amen (so be it).
1. Only one eternal being, God, and only he has immortality.
2. Unapproachable light: this is the excessive glory of God that neither angels nor men can approach it.
17 As for the rich in this world, charge them not to be proud and arrogant and contemptuous of others, nor to set their hopes on uncertain riches, but on God, Who richly and ceaselessly provides us with everything for [our] enjoyment.
1. Timothy is to charge the rich not to value themselves on account of their wealth, because this adds nothing to mind or moral worth.
2. Riches are not to be trusted, and seldom continue long with one proprietor; they canít give happiness, because theyíre not fixed or permanent.
3. For our enjoyment: The comforts and necessities come from God.
a. If it wasnít for the oppression of wicked men, every situation and state in life would be comparatively comfortable
b. God gives liberally, man divides it badly
18[Charge them] to do good, to be rich in good works, to be liberal and generous of heart, ready to share [with others],
1. do good: relieve the wants of their fellow man, according to the abundance which God has given them.
2. This is the highest luxury a human can enjoy in this life.
3. Good works may be as abundant as their riches.
4. give impartially according to the need.
19 In this way laying up for themselves [the riches that endure forever as] a good foundation for the future, so that they may grasp that which is life indeed.
1. Treasure up for themselves a good foundation to them for the future, an abundant reward by the free mercy of God.
2. You canít buy eternal life by this, yet they come up for a memorial before God. (Acts 10:4)
20 O Timothy, guard and keep the deposit entrusted [to you]! Turn away from the irreverent babble and godless chatter, with the vain and empty and worldly phrases, and the subtleties and the contradictions in what is falsely called knowledge and spiritual illumination.
1. This is a repetition of the apostolic charge: carefully preserve that doctrine which I have delivered to you.
21[For] by making such profession some have erred (missed the mark) as regards the faith. Grace (divine favor and blessing) be with you all! Amen (so be it).
1. Some teachers were pretending that they had inspired knowledge and set up Levitical rites in opposition to the great Christian sacrifice, Christís death and resurrection, and thus have erred concerning the faith.